A usually progressive condition (such as Alzheimer’s disease) marked by the development of multiple cognitive deficits 9such as memory impairment, aphasia and the inability to plan and initiate complex behavior).
Meaning of Dementia:
The meaning of dementia is a group of symptoms that affects our memory, thinking and social abilities at a very large scale and this interface to our daily life. Memory loss is generally happens in dementia.
Causes of Dementia:
Dementia is a treatable disease and this illness is caused by degeneration in cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex is the part of brain that is responsible for thoughts, actions, and personality and memory. Death of brain cells can also cause dementia. The treatable causes of dementia are head injury, brain tumors, infections like meningitis, HIV/AIDS, simple and normal pressure hydrocephalus and hormonal disorders.
Some other causes include Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and some other Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, pick’s disease or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Alzheimer’s disease: this is the most common cause of dementia and it is irreversible disease. The cause of AD is abnormal deposits of protein in brain and destroys the area of brain that mostly controls memory. Its prevention is not still possible.
Vascular Dementia: this is the second most common cause of dementia. Around 20 percent of the cases arose because of this disease. In this disease dementia is a caused by atherosclerosis. Mixed dementia is the cause when vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease occurs at same time.
Stages of Dementia: herearegiven seven stages of dementia that explains this disease very well fully. Understanding this disease can help for the treatment.
Stage 1: no Impairment: At this stage mental function is normal and no symptom of cognitive impairment arises.
Stage 2: Very Mild Cognitive Decline: this stage includes the age related memory problems. Seniors face this stage and at this stage Alzheimer’s disease start showing its signs.
Stage 3: Mild Cognitive Decline: atthisstage family and friends start noticing signs of this disease. Some of the signs are impaired work performance.
➤ Memory loss/ forgetfulness
➤ Verbal repetition
➤ Poor organization and concentration
➤ Trouble with problem saving
➤ Difficulty in driving
Stage 4: Moderate Cognitive Decline: this stage is also called as early onset Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Some of the symptoms are social withdrawal, moodiness, non-responsive, trouble with routine tasks and denial.
Stage 5: Moderately Severe Cognitive Decline: symptoms of this stage are
Confusion/forgetfulness, memory loss of personal details and current events Reduced mental acquity and problem solving capacity.
Stage 6: Severe Cognitive Decline: it is also called as middle dementia and the symptoms are difficulty in sleeping, increased paranoia or delusions, anxiety, even difficulty in recognizing his level ones.
Stage 7: Very Severe Cognitive Decline: thisisthesevere stage of this disease and in this disease patient loses the ability to speak or walk and communication impairment occurs.
Dementia Signs and Symptoms:
Here are given some signs and symptoms of this disease.
➤ Memory problems, particularly remembering recent events
➤ Increasing confusing
➤ Reduced concentration
➤ Personality and behavior changes
➤ Apathy and withdrawal or depression
➤ Loss of ability to do everyday task.
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Types of Dementia:
Here are different types of dementia explained below.
➢ Alzheimer’s disease
➢ Vascular dementia
➢ Dementia with lewy bodies
➢ Parkinson’s disease
➢ Fronto temporal dementia
➢ Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
➢ Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
➢ Mixed dementia
➢ Normal pressure hydrocephalus
➢ Huntington’s disease
Treatment of dementia:
There are different medications and therapies available for dementia that is explained below.
Medications: following medications can improve the situation of dementia.
➤ Cholinesterase inhibitors
➤ Other medications like depression sleep disturbances, hallucinations, Parkinsonism or agitation.
Therapies: here are given some of the therapies that can help to improve this disease.
➤ Occupational therapy
➤ Modifying the environment
➤ Simplifying tasks
Some other therapies: some other therapies are also available for dementias that are explained below.
➤ Musictherapy, in which listening of music will improve the conditions of dementia
➤ Light oversize will also help recover
➤ Watching different videos of family members also help to treat this disease
➤ Aromatherapy, in which fragrant plant oil are used
➤ Massage therapy
➤ Art therapy
Diagnosing dementia is like a challenge and its types are most challenging. It is a great challenge for doctors to diagnose and then treat dementia.